Radar Design Principles

Paper: 978 1 891121 50 0 / $115.00
Published: December 1999  

Publisher: SciTech Publishing
7" x 10"
A true classic in the field, now available once again from SciTech, this widely-respected sourcebook on radar design offers coverage of digital technology, weather radar, microburst detection, and digital correlators.

Providing a broad look at modern theory as well as a review of all the developments in practical equipment design and construction in recent years, this resource includes four chapters on equations and detection theory, plus seven on waveforms and signal processing. Other chapters include essential data on radar targets and propagation.

Throughout, the emphasis is on radar design to cope with the "total environment," including unwanted reflections from sea, land, precipitation, chaff, thermal noise, and jamming, rather than any single performance goal. The authors also recognize that mapping, weather-sensing, terrain avoidance, altimetry, etc., may be designed for a single-function radar or as modes of a multifunction radar. The last chapter in the book identifies newer, more specialized radar techniques, and describes how to analyze or simulate coherent radars including the limitations and related loss terms.

Key Features
RADAR TARGETS - Detailed treatment of scattering from simple shapes, polarization properties, radar cross-section distributions, and frequency agility effects.

PROPAGATION, ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, WEATHER AND CHAFF - Includes coverage of signal attenuation in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in foliage, backscatter coefficients, uniformity, and spectrum, refraction, and properties of chaff.

SEA AND LAND SCATTERING - Greatly expanded treatment of backscattering from the sea at various angles and frequencies, the properties of sea "spikes," the effects of ducting conditions, and terrain types and their reflectivity.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Radar and Its Composite Environment
Radar Functions and Applications
Evolution of Radar Signal Processing
Radar and the Radar Equation
Functions of Various Types of Radar
Target-Detection Radars for Aircraft, Missiles, and Satellites
Radar Frequency Bands and Carrier Selection
Surface and Low-Altitude Target Detection
Criteria for Choice of Signal-Processing Techniques
Antenna and Array Considerations
Radar Grazing Angle for Refractive Conditions � 4/3 Earth Approximation
Forward-Scatter Effects

Chapter 2. Review of Radar Range Performance Computations
General Radar Range Equation
Radar Detection wit hNoise Jamming or Interference
Beacon and Repeater Equations
Bistatic Radar
Radar Detection Equations in Distributed Clutter (VolumeReflectors) for Pulse Radars
Pulse-Radar Detection Equations for Area Clutter

Chapter 3. Statistical Relationships for Various Detection Processes
Introduction and Definitions
Target Detection by a Pulsed Radar
Additional results of the Marcum and Swerling Analysis
Noncoherent Integration Losses
Postdetection Integration with Partially Correlated Noise
Independent Sampling of Clutter Echoes
Digital Integrators and Limits on Independent Sampling
Cumulative Detection of a Radar Target
Detection Range for an Approaching Target

Chapter 4. Automatic Detection by Nonlinear, Sequential & Adaptive Processes
Dynamic Range Problems � STC ad IAGC
Effects of Limiters on Target Detection
Effects of Interfering Signals in Systems with Limiters
Limiting in Pulse Compression and Pulse Doppler Systems
Summary of Limiter Effects
Sequential Detection and Track-Before-Detect Processing
Adaptive Threshold Techniques
Dynamic Range of Rayleigh Signals
Overall False Alarm Control

Chapter 5. Radar Targets
General Scattering Properties � Simple Shapes
Polarization Scattering Matrix
Complex Targets � Backscatter and Distributions
Measured Aircraft and Missile RCS Distributions
Missile and Satellite Cross Sections
Marine Targets
Miscellaneous Airborne Reflections and Clear Echoes
Spectra of Radar Cross-Section Fluctuations
Frequency-Agility Effects on Target Detection and Tracking
Bistatic Radar Cross Section of Targets

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Effects, Weather, and Chaff
Standard Atmospheric Attenuation
Precipitation Occurrence and Extent
Attenuation in Hydrometeors and Foliage
Backscatter Coefficient of Rain, Snow, and Clouds
Radar Precipitation Doppler Spectra
Frequency Correlation of Precipitation Echoes
Spatial Uniformity of Rain Backscatter
Tropospheric Refraction Effects
General Properties of Chaff
Spectra of Chaff Echoes

Chapter 7. Sea and Land Backscatter
Backscatter from the Sea � Monostatic
Empirical Sea Backscatter Models for Low Grazing Angles
Sea Clutter near Vertical Incidence
Polarization and Wind-Direction Effects on Reflectivity
Spectrum of Sea Clutter Noise
Spatial and Frequency Correlation of Sea Clutter
Short-Pulse Sea Clutter Echoes or Spikes
Sea Clutter under Ducting Conditions
Short-Range Clutter
Backscatter from Various Terrain Types
Composite Terrain at Low Grazing Angles
Composite Terrain at Mid-Angles
Composite Terrain � Spatial and Temporal Distributions
Bistatic Sea and Land Clutter

Chapter 8. Signal Processing Concepts and Waveform Design
Radar Requirements as We Approach the Year 2000
Matched Filters
The Radar Ambiguity Function
The Radar Environmental Diagram
Optimum Waveforms for Detection in Clutter
Desirability of Range-Doppler Ambiguity
Classes of Waveforms
Digital Representation of Signals

Chapter 9. Moving Target Indicators (MTI)
MTI Configurations
Limitations on MTI Performance � Clutter Fluctuations
Digital MTI Limitations
Noncoherent and Nonlinear Processes
Ambiguous-Range Clutter
Airborne MTI
System Limitations

Chapter 10. Environmental Limitations of CW Radars
Transmitter Spillover and Noise Limitations
CW, FM-CW, and ICW Transmissions
Rain Clutter Power for Separate Transmit and Receive Antennas
Sea and Land Clutter Power for Surface Antennas
Clutter Spectrum for Airborne Radars

Chapter 11. Pulse Doppler and Burst Waveforms
Terminology and General Assumptions
Range Doppler Limitations
Ambiguity Diagrams for Single-Carrier Pulse Trains
Amplitude, Phase, and Pulse-Width Tapering of Finite Pulse Trains
Block Diagrams for Pulse Doppler Receivers
Fast Fourier Transform Processing
Architecture for Pulse-Train Processors
Range Computations for Pulse Doppler Radars
Clutter Computations
Truncated Pulse Trains

Chapter 12. Phase-Coding Techniques
Principles of Phase Coding
The Barker, MPS, and Other Useful Codes
Random and (Maximal-Length) Pseudorandom Codes
Sidelobe Suppression of Phase-Coded Words
Polyphase-Coded Words
Compression Techniques � All Range Compressors
Cross Correlators and Tracking Techniques

Chapter 13. Frequency-Modulated Pulse Compression Waveforms
Multiplicity of Frequency-Modulation Techniques
Linear FM Pulses (Chirp)
Generation and Decoding of FM Waveforms
Distortion Effects on Linear FM Signals
Spectrum of a Comb of Frequencies
Waveform Analysis for Discrete Frequencies
Capabilities for Extreme Bandwidths and "Stretch" Techniques
Resolution Properties of Frequency-Coded Pulses
Sidelobe Reduction
Pulse Compression Decoders and Limiter Effects
Nonlinear FM
Ambiguity Diagrams for FM Waveforms
Digital Decoders

Chapter 14. Hybrid Processors, Meterological Radar, & System Performance Analysis
The Moving Target Detector (MTD)
Meteorological Radar
Aerostat Surveillance Radars
Performance Estimation for Coherent Pulse Radars

Bibliography and References